Election Day

Election Day

Genealogists seek any scrap of information that places our ancestors in the context of place and time.  As we reach back farther in time, this can become difficult as surviving records become spotty.

Voting is a practice that has been around since before America was founded, so there is opportunity to locate records that were created related to the political process.  Election campaigns and voting laws may have resulted in a paper trail that helps us locate information about our ancestors involvement in the political process.

Voters had to register.  Often finding a voters list may be a research lifesaver, especially in the eras where census records many not be extant.  Because elections were taken more often than the decennial censuses, they are a great substitute to placing a person in a specific geographic area in a given year.

Consider what is available by conducting a catalog search for “voter” at  There are 14 searchable databases for various areas: card catalog search for "voter"


Similarly, consider the holdings of the Family History Library by searching the catalog at  There are over 1,200 results, although many of them are books or microfilmed records that are not yet available to search online.  The microfilm can be rented to view at a local Family History Center or Affiliate Library, but books must be viewed in Salt Lake City at the Family History Library. catalog search for "voter"


Voting has not always been available to all segments of the population.  Although Wyoming was the first U.S. state to allow women to vote in 1869, not all states held the same views on equality.  The women’s suffrage movement worked hard for many years to establish the right to vote; however, women didn’t gain the right to vote in all states until well into the 20th century when the 19th Amendment was passed on May 19, 1919.

 Women's suffrage broadside  Women voting responsibilit of citizenship  Women suffrage poster Texas poll tax

And other segments of the population have been disenfranchised over the years.  After the Civil War, many areas passed laws that implemented poll taxes or other measures that limited the rights of blacks or poor whites from voting.  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and other discriminatory practices.

Newspaper headline McKinley and RooseveltPolitical campaigns of the past were just as heated as they are today, although the newspaper ads and broadsides of yesteryear have been replaced by TV ads and pre-recorded robocalls today. If an ancestor ran for political office, chances are good that evidence may be found in newspaper or ephemera collections.

A great place to start looking is at the Library of Congress:  the Chronicling America collection contains over 8 million pages of digitized newspapers 1836-1922, and the American Memory collection contains “An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera.”  Many states also have digitized newspaper projects, and even small-town local libraries might have microfilm copies or the original newsprint in their collections.

Although most genealogists are researching for deceased ancestors, present-day voters lists may be available in some states.  For instance, Colorado open voter laws allow anyone to buy a copy of the registered voter list for $50.  This list contains names, addresses, and birth years of anyone registered to vote.

A genealogy website has been setup for Colorado voters at  This site currently contains all the registered Colorado voters as of September 2, 2014.  In reviewing the site, I see that it does contain my personal information, as well as my husband’s and his ex-wife—the only 3 Coutants publicly registered to vote in Colorado.

Although genealogists rejoice when finding records about their ancestors, they may not be as thrilled about having their own personal voter info publicly available while they are still living, citing privacy concerns.  Colorado voters can ask for a confidential voter form if they do not wish to appear on the public list; the form is available from the county clerk and recorder’s office for a $5 fee.

But once information is on a website list like, it may not be that easy to have personal information removed.  If the website’s “Our Policies” page is consulted, it provides information in an in-your-face-tone for “calm, sensible persons” and “hot-headed crazies” to submit a notarized request to be removed from the list.

Colorado Voters Removal Instructions

Love it or hate it, public records are one of the most common ways we are able to conduct genealogical research.  If you have an opinion on  having voter information publicly available, please comment below.  And don’t forget to vote today if you haven’t already!

Honoring Our Ancestral Mothers

Honoring Our Ancestral Mothers

Today is Mother’s Day, and so we honor our moms.  We might send a card, have some flowers delivered, or even call our mothers if we are blessed to still have them.  This is how we show appreciation for our mothers today, but how do we honor all the mothers in our family tree who came before our own mother?


Undated copy of photo, labeled only as “Mary,” in author’s collection

For many genealogists, researching females can be difficult.

To start with, we may not even know our ancestral mothers’ names.  They may have been obscured by history and tradition, known only as the “Mrs.” of their husbands.  Or worse, they may be completely silent in the records, with no mention at all.  Yet, we know they did exist–barring any modern reproductive scientific miracles, we simply would not be here today without our ancestral mothers.

How can we honor the memory of those mothers that may be so difficult to find?  The most obvious, simplest (but not easiest) thing we can do is give them back their names for posterity’s sake.

Here are several research tips to help locate females in historical records.

Search for Vital Records or their substitutes

Vital records are typically referred to as “BMDs,” short for birth, marriage, and death.  Whether viewing modern civil records or historical church records, these types of records will often list the full maiden name of the woman.

  • Marriage documents provide the best chance to locate the maiden name.  Look for the marriage application, license, or a consent to marry if the female was under legal age to marry.
  • Birth documents are usually accurate with regard to the mother’s information, because she was most likely the informant.  Look for birth certificates or registers, adoption decrees, or parish baptism or christening records.
  • Death records will provide information about females, but the records may not be as accurate, depending upon who the informant was (husband, sibling, child, grandchild, etc.).  Look for death certificates or registers, funeral home or mortuary records, cemetery records (such as who owned the plot), and obituaries.
  • Family Bibles are a great source of birth, marriage and death information if they can be located.  Often kept before the statewide requirements to record vital records, a family Bible may provide an adequate substitute.
Wedding portrait of Mary Elizabeth Bell, married John William Freeman 5 Nov 1891 in Hope, Lavaca, Texas

Wedding portrait of Mary Elizabeth Bell, great-grandmother of the author, dated 5 Nov 1891, who married John William Freeman in Hope, Lavaca, Texas, in author’s collection

Scour census records for all the clues they contain

Although census records may not directly answer our research questions, they often provide indirect evidence that can be used as clues to locate other original records.  Consider that beginning with the 1880 census, relationships to head-of-household were provided; thus, a mother-in-law or father-in-law listed in the wife’s household would be her parents.  Don’t overlook the following questions that were asked on various census years, which will point to other records such as marriages or births:

  • Was the person married within the census year? (1850-1890)
  • What was the person’s marital status? (1880-1940)
  • How many years has the person been married? (1900-1910)
  • What was the age at the person’s first marriage? (1930)
  • What was the parents’ place of birth? (1880-1940)

Other record types abound that mention women

Many other record types will name women in their proper familial context as daughters, wives, mothers or widows.  These records may not be as easy to locate or may cost a fee to obtain, but will be helpful in locating the elusive female.

  • Wills, probate or guardianship records – will mention the wife and may provide for the widow’s minor children
  • Land records – often mention the wife or widow, especially if she was entitled to a dower right in the property
  • Pension files – a widow would often apply for a military pension based upon her husband’s Revolutionary War, War of 1812, or Civil War service
  • Tax lists – a widow may show up on a tax list after her husband has died, being taxed on the same amount or value of property
  • Lineage or hereditary society applications – these documents have to connect each generation back to the target ancestor, and each fact on the application should be supported by named sources
  • County or local histories – these books became popular in the late 1800s and usually contain biographies that were submitted by a family member, although they rarely name their sources
  • Newspaper articles – in earlier times newspapers would print just about anything, so look for mentions of females in the social or gossip sections, as well as announcements for births, marriages or deaths
  • Manuscripts – libraries and archives often have unpublished collections of family papers that can be a goldmine for researchers, and may also have vertical files organized by surname
  • Photographs – family photos may contain notations that serve as clues about the females they depict, and websites such as Flickr, Facebook or eBay may host photos posted by others who are distant family members or unrelated resellers

Lucille Freeman, about age 8 circa 1918, paternal grandmother of author, in author’s collection

While the resources described above may not always provide the answers we seek about our ancestral mothers, they are great places to begin looking.  Websites such as, or HeritageQuest (accessible via participating libraries) can be used to locate many of these records.  But for some records that are not available online, a road trip to a distant county courthouse or archive might be necessary to gain access to these records.

In conclusion, today’s challenge is to add at least one more female, or ancestral mother, to your family tree.  And when you do, how will you honor and celebrate her discovery?